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Racialized slavery and racial terrorism
Mill Lane Lecture Room 9
Thursday 17 November 2016, 17:00-19:00

The ghetto and the prison
Mill Lane Lecture Room 9
Friday 18 November 2016, 17:00-19:00

Peculiar Institutions: Four centuries of race-making in the United States
Knox Shaw Room, Sidney Sussex College
Monday 28 November 2016, 17:00-19:00

Here are background books and articles that offer early versions, supportive materials and elaborations on arguments made or implied in the lectures, as well as bibliographic pointers for those who want to go further or back to the historical materials I build on.

Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2008, 342p. Translated in 9 languages.     Book Links
 Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity, Durham and London, Duke University Press, “Politics, Culture, and History” series, 2009, 410p. Translated in 8 languages.

Deadly Symbiosis: Race and the Rise of the Penal State
. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2017.

The Two Faces of the Ghetto
. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2017. 


Wacquant Books 



General introduction to the trilogy (Urban Outcasts, Punishing the Poor, Deadly Symbiosis), the theoretical model and the key concepts used; Bourdieu’s sociology of the “realization of categories”; epistemological pitfalls to avoid in the construction of a dirty and lowly object; preview of the analytic of racial domination; an early attempt to rethink the nexus of race and class as joint outcomes of classification struggles.

2014 “Marginality, Ethnicity and Penality in the Neoliberal City: An Analytic Cartography.”  Ethnic & Racial Studies, 37, no 10, Symposium (with responses from Andy Clarno, Michael Dawson, Matt Desmond, Amy Lerman, Mara Loveman, Douglas Massey, Dorothy Roberts, Robert Sampson, William Julius Wilson, Andreas Wimmer): 1687-1711. Read PDF

2013 “Symbolic Power and Group-Making: On Bourdieu’s Reframing of Class.” Journal of Classical Sociology 13, no. 2 (May): 274-291. Read PDF

2002 “Scrutinizing the Street: Poverty, Morality, and the Pitfalls of Urban Ethnography.” American Journal of Sociology 107-6 (May): 1468-1532. Read PDF

1997 “For an Analytic of Racial Domination.” Political Power and Social Theory 11, no. 1 (Symposium on “Rethinking Race” with Ann Laura Stoler, Patricia Dominguez, David Roediger, and Uday Singh Mehta): 221-234. Read PDF

1989 “The Puzzle of Race and Class in American Society and Social Science.” Benjamin E. Mays Monographs 2-1 (Fall): 7-20. Read PDF



Principles and instruments to rethink comparative urban relegation (ghetto, hyperghetto, anti-ghetto), mechanisms and forms of sociospatial seclusion, the logics and effects of territorial stigma, the structural components and functions of the ghetto, the opposition between ghetto and ethnic cluster, obstacles to constructing a robust concept of the ghetto.


2015 “Revisiting Territories of Relegation: Class, Ethnicity and the State in the Making of Advanced Marginality.” Urban Studies Journal, 53, no. 6, (Symposium with responses by Nicole Marwell, Janos Ladanyí, Troels Schultz Larsen, Orlando Patterson, and Emma Shaw Crane): 1077-1088. Read PDF

2014 “Territorial Stigmatization in Action.” Environment & Planning A (with Tom Slater and Virgílio Pereira), 46-6, June: 1270-1280. Read PDF

2010 “A Janus-Faced Institution of Ethnoracial Closure: A Sociological Specification of the Ghetto.” Pp. 1-31 in Ray Hutchison and Bruce Haynes (eds.), The Ghetto: Contemporary Global Issues and Controversies, Boulder, Westview. Read PDF

2010 “Designing Urban Seclusion in the 21st Century.” Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal 43: 165-178. Read PDF

2007 “Territorial Stigmatization in the Age of Advanced Marginality.” Thesis Eleven, 91 (November): 66-77. Read PDF

2004 “Ghetto.” In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes. London: Pergamon Press. Read PDF

1997 “Three Pernicious Premises in the Study of the American Ghetto.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 21-2 (June), “Events and Debate”: 341-353. With responses in three issues by Michael B. Katz, Janet Abu-Lughod, Herbert Gans, Javier Auyero, Kenneth L. Kusmer, Paul Jargowski, Ceri Peach, and Sharon Zukin. Read PDF



Using Bourdieus’ “bureaucratic field” to craft a robust concept of the penal state that breaks out of the crime and punishment box, relinks welfare and criminal justice as two variants of marginality policy, and overcomes the opposition between materialist and symbolic approaches to penality; from mass incarceration to hyperincarceration skewed by class, ethnicity and place; (hyper)ghetto and prison as two institutions of the confinement for stigmatized categories; how punishment as public dishonor reshapes race as denegated ethnicity in the US, Western Europe, and Brazil; justice policy in the making of neoliberalism as the erection of a Centaur state, liberal at the top, disciplinary at the bottom.

2014 “The Global Firestorm of Law and Order: On Neoliberalism and Punishment.” Thesis Eleven 122 (Spring): 72-88. Read PDF

2011 “The Wedding of Workfare and Prisonfare Revisited.” Social Justice 38, 1-2 (Spring): 203-221. Read PDF

2010 “Class, Race and Hyperincarceration in Revanchist America.” Daedalus, thematic issue on “The Challenges of Mass Incarceration,” 139-3 (Summer): 74-90. Read PDF

2010 “Crafting the Neoliberal State: Workfare, Prisonfare and Social Insecurity.” Sociological Forum 25, no. 2 (June): 197-220. With responses by John Campbell, Bernard Harcourt, Margit Mayer, Jamie Peck, Frances Piven, and Mariana Valverde. Theoretical Criminology, vol. 14, no. 1, February 2010, pp. 58-120. Read PDF

2008 “The Militarization of Urban Marginality: Lessons from the Brazilian Metropolis.” International Political Sociology 2-1 (March): 56-74. Read PDF

2008 “Extirpate and Expell: On the Penal Management of Postcolonial Migrants in the European Union.” Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts 2-1 (Fall): 45-52. Read PDF

2005 “‘Enemies of the Wholesome Part of the Nation’: Postcolonial Migrants in the Prisons of Europe.” Sociologie (Amsterdam), 1-1 (Spring): 31-51. Reprinted (revised) as “Penalization, Depoliticization, and Racialization: On the Overincarceration of Immigrants in the European Union,” in Sarah Armstrong and Lesley McAra (eds.), Perspectives on Punishment: The Contours of Control, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2006, pp. 83-100. Read PDF

2005 “Race as Civic Felony.” International Social Science Journal 181 (Spring): 127-142. Read PDF

2001 “Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and Prison Meet and Mesh.” Punishment & Society 3-1 (Winter): 95-133. Read PDF

2000 “The New ‘Peculiar Institution’: On the Prison as Surrogate Ghetto.” Theoretical Criminology, 4-3, Special issue on “New Social Studies of the Prison”: 377-389. Read PDF



The major historical and comparative studies I rely upon and recommend, in the rough order I would read them to get the most of each set.


 * On slavery and its racialization in America

Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

Peter Kolchin, Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1987).

George M. Fredrickson, White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981).

Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (New York: W.W. Norton, 1975).

Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998).

* On “Jim Crow” as racial terrorism 

Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Knopf, 1998). 

Hortense Powdermaker, After Freedom: A Cultural Study of the Deep South, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, [1939] 1993.

Neil R. McMillen, Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989). 

David M. Oshinsky, Worse than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (New York: Free Press, 1997).

James Allen, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America (Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms Publishers, 2000) and the web site WITHOUTSANCTUARY.ORG.

* On the black ghetto in America (the one and only)

St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton, Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, [1945] 1993.

Thomas Lee Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle-Class Reform, Chicago 1880-1930 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).

Kenneth B. Clark, Dark Ghetto: Dilemmas of Social Power (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, [1965] 1989). This is not about the ghetto but about the hyperghetto).

Arnold R. Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). New edition by University of Chicago Press, 1998, after they rejected the manuscript back in 1983 because it reveals the pivotal role of the University of Chicago in destroying the black neighborhoods surrounding its neighborhood of Hyde Park and initiating the policy of “urban renewal” that became a national model of “Negro removal.”’

* On the hybrid hyperghetto-cum-prison (and NOT the prison solo)

David J. Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Boston, Little Brown, 1971).

Alex Kotlowitz, There Are No Children Here (New York: Anchor Books, 1991).

William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Knopf, 1996).

Bourgois, Philippe. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993, new ed. 2003.

Bruce Western, Punishment and Inequality in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006).

Michael Tonry, Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

Ted Conover, Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing (New York, Vintage, 2001).

Sanyika Shakur, Monster: The Autobiography of an LA Gang Member. New York: Grove, 2007.

Jill Leovy. Ghettoside: A True Story of Murder in America (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2015).


Slide 1 - SlaverySlide 2 - Jim Crow

Slide 3 - This ghettohyperghetto-prison mesh

Racial Domination Poster

Visit the personal website of Loïc Wacquant. You will find here a quick guide to his intellectual approach and agenda; research work and books; articles with PDFs roughly organized by theme (with translations to help you track down the version of your choice); debates, interviews and interventions in civic fora; and information on scholarly and public lectures, the courses he teaches, and the conferences he organizes.